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Date of show:
January 26, 2001

For location of this show in NM, click on the map:
 Location of Lipizzaner Stallions World Tour ...

We rate this show a:

Show Highlights:
 Small arena
 Up close and personal
 "Airs Above Ground"
 See horses "salivate"
 Smell the "doo-doo"
 Quadrille: marvelous
 Dressage: impressive
 Lipizzaner breeding
 Spanish Andalusians


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Lipizzaner Stallions

The Saga of the Lipizzans

The Lipizzaner - the aerialist of the equestrian world
The Lipizzaner:
the aerialist of the equestrian world
Lipizzaner Stallion has galloped boldly out of the pages of 400 years of European history into the hearts of millions of Americans. Walt Disney's motion picture, The Miracle of the White Stallions, depicting the rescue of the horses by General Patton's men during World War II, did much to publicize and to create sympathy and admiration for the Lipizzaners in the United States.
The Lipizzan is the aristocrat, the royalty the light and the nimble dancer and the aerialist of the equestrian world. His distant ancestors from the Orient bore Ghengis Khan out of the wastes of Asia to conquer much of the then-known world. The fleet Arabic strain in the Lipizzaners patrolled, guarded and raided treasure-laden caravans in the golden sands of the Sahara. Their masters were Bedouins, Tuaregs and riders from a dozen long-forgotten tribes.

It is believed that the forerunner of the Lipizzan was bred in Carthage, more than 2,000 years ago. The Carthaginian stock was bred to the Vilano, a sturdy Pyrenees horse, and with Arab and Barbary strains. The result became the fabled Andalusian of ancient Spain.

During Spain's 700 years of Moorish domination, the breed remained essentially the same. Occasional crossing with fresh Arab and Oriental blood by the breeders of Cordoba and Granada assured that the fleetness and agility so prized by the Arabs remained qualities inherent in the stock. The Spanish began to export the horses after Spain rid itself of Moorish rule. The most notable stud farms were established in Italy and Frederiksborg, Denmark. The Danes produced excellent stock from the Spanish progenitors; the Italian "Neapolitan" bloodline became famous in Europe.

Archduke Maximilian, later Emperor of Austria, began breeding Spanish horses there about 1562. Eighteen years later, Archduke Karl, ruler of four Austrian provinces, established a royal stud farm in Lipizza, located in the hills of Karst, near Trieste. It was rugged, craggy country with little vegetation or water, but the Lippizans thrived on it, lending to their endurance, strength and speed.

They became almost exclusively the property of the nobility and the military aristocracy The stallions were trained for battle. Their great leaps and caprioles struck fear in the hearts of foot soldiers who opposed their well-born riders. The gentle, intelligent white mares became the coach horses of the elite.

Fresh Spanish stock was systematically added to the bloodline at intervals to maintain the strength of the breed. Oriental stallions were used occasionally for the same purpose. In the 17th and 18th centuries, horses from the northern Italian stud farm at Polesnia and the highly regarded Neapolitan strain were brought to Lipizza to mingle with the resident stock and the descendants of the original Spanish line out of Denmark and Germany.

General Patton was not the first to rescue the Lipizzans from the exigencies of war. In 1781, during the Napoleonic Wars, 300 horses were evacuated in a 40-day march to Stuhlweissenburg. They returned to Lipizza after peace was established. In 1805 they were moved again to Slavonia, and in 1806 to Karad, a Hungarian village with a population of less than 4,000. They returned to Lipizza, only to flee the advancing armies of France.

From 1809 to 1815, they lived in the lowlands of the Pisza River, a tributary of the Danube. The land was hard on them. It took several years and an infusion of fresh blood to recapture the vitality and high standard of the line. In May of 1915, the Lipizzans were split up. One group was taken to Laxenburg, near Vienna, and the other to Kladrub.

The fall of the Austrian House of Hapsburg in 1918 brought about the break-up of the old Austrian Empire. Lipizza became a part of Italy The Italian and Austrian governments divided the Lipizzaner herd equally. The Republic of Austria took their horses to Piber in Steiermark. Piber, a privately owned stud farm, was founded in 1798 to breed cavalry mounts for the army. In 1858, it became a government breeding farm and produced Lipizzans of another and lighter strain for stud purpose in the provinces. Although "The Wonderful World of Horses" is not affiliated with "The Spanish Riding School," a number of the Lipizzans appearing in the show were purchased from the School or born at the Piber Stud Farm.

The Lipizzan is a long-lived horse. Thirty to thirty five years is their average life span. They are usually bom black and change slowly through a period of six to ten years to their final, pure white color. Occasionally a Lipizzaner colt is bom pure white, but they are rarities. Those, so born, in the days of the Hapsburg were chosen to draw the royal equipages.

There are six significant bloodlines in today's Lipizzaner breed. They originated with and date back to the following stallions: The Dane, "Pluto," 1765; The Neapolitan, "Conversano," 1767, "Maestosa," 1773; "Favory," 1799; "Neapolitano," 1790; and the Arab, "Siglavy," from the stables of Prince Schwarzenberg, 1810.

Dressage: Harmony Between Horse and Rider
Pas de Trois - a three man exercise
Pas de Trois
a three man exercise
The Lipizzaner Stallion is renowned as the world's greatest exponent of dressage.

Although described in many ways, perhaps the easiest way to explain dressage is its purpose: that man and horse - a two-fold bond - are two hearts with one mind.

Dressage is the art of perfecting the natural gait. It is the perfect walk, the precise trot, and the even cantor. Long, patient training culminates in a work of art. Mutual appreciation leads to obedience, where delicate interchanges of subtle signals render obvious yet invisible communication.

In modern terms, dressage may be thought of as an equestrian ballet. The horse and rider work together as one unit, creating an enjoyable and graceful exercise to behold.

The law of dressage - for it is a law - is a law of nature perfecting the natural. It is centuries old. Xenophon, noted Greek historian and military leader, created the art in Greece in 400 B.C. Xenophon stated an exact principle: "If one induces the horse to assume that carriage, which it would adopt of its own accord when displaying its beauty, then one directs the horse to appear joyous and magnificent, proud and remarkable for having been ridden." Xenophon went on further to say, "If the rider is not in harmony with the nature of the animal, then it will perform as a burden with no display of pleasure."

In later times, the French equestrian, Francis Robichon de Le Gueriniere stated a similar theory: "Suppleness and lack of constraint are the prerequisites for voluntarily offered obedience, not for agonized subjection of the horse." A spirited animal will die under harsh treatment and subjection.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe said, "Thou must learn the thoughts of the noble horse whom thou wouldst ride. Be not indiscreet in the demands, nor requiring him to perform indiscreetly. The horse is a wise animal. Let him show you the best and most natural way to accomplish a desired end."

Regarding young horses in training, another famed French equestrian, Antoine de La Baume Pluvinel, is quoted, "We shall take care not to vex the horse, or cause it to abandon its affable gracefulness in disgust. For this is like the fragrance blossoms, which never again returns once it has vanished."

The late Colonel Alois Podhajsky, the past longtime director of the renowned Spanish Riding School in Vienna, stated, "One can never, through violence, cause the horse to perfect the manner in which it expresses its skill, but only by delicate coaxing and subtle demanding, between much praise and little punishment."

While the Lipizzaner Stallion is courageous, spirited and strong, he is a sensitive being and responds to praise and appreciation and rebels immediately to force. The Lipizzaner Stallion Show is a demonstration of a unique and admired relationship.

Terms and Definitions
AIRS ABOVE THE GROUND: This is a series of maneuvers where the horse leaps above the ground. These include the Capriole, Courbette and Levade. They are performed with or without a rider.
CAPRIOLE: The horse finds his tempo, leaps into the air, drawing his forelegs under his chest and, at the height of elevation, kicks out violently with the hind legs. [ see movement ]
COURBETTE: The horse balances on the hind legs and then jumps, keeping the hind legs together and the forelegs off the ground. [ see movement ]
CROUPADE: The jump is similar to the Capriole, but in this maneuver, the horse tucks both his fore and hind legs under his body at the height of elevation.
DRESSAGE: The guidance of a mount through a set of maneuvers without the perceptible use of hands, reins, legs, etc. It is a French word for "schooling of the horse," and it simply means harmony between horse and rider.
HAUTE E'COULE: The advanced art of High School riding... the highest level of dressage.
LEVADE: The horse must maintain a haunched position at a 45-degree angle to the ground, requiring muscle control and balance that is most difficult to perfect. [ see movement ]
LINEAGE: There are six significant bloodlines represented in today's Lipizzan breed. The names of the horses in the show indicate these bloodlines, allowing one to trace the stallion's lineage. The names are:
the Dane, PLUTO, 1765;
the Neapolitan, CONVERSANO, 1767;
FAVORY, 1799;
and the Arab, SIGLAVY, 1810.
MOVEMENTS: Also called Maneuvers, these are the actions of the horse in presentation... and they are never referred to as "tricks. [ see movement ]
PIAFFE: The horse stands in one spot while performing a cadence trot. [ see movement ]
PIROUETTE: While balanced on his hind legs, the horse is required to pivot in a half circle or full circle before coming down on all four legs.
[ see movement ]
QUADRILLE: As it applies to the Lipizzan's performance, it is a military drill performed to music and features several horses and riders. [ see movement ]
SPANISH RIDING SCHOOL OF VIENNA: A centuries-old training center in Austria, considered the "Harvard" of the equestrian world. The "World Famous" Lipizzaner Stallions is an authentic presentation of this style, but is not affiliated with the Spanish Riding School.
All movement images in this section are copyright White Stallions Productions, Inc.
United States 2nd Cavalry Rescues the Lipizzans
Rescued by the Army's 2nd Cavalry
Rescued by the Army's 2nd Cavalry
In April 1945, the heroic efforts of the 42nd Squadron of the United States Army's 2nd Cavalry were responsible for the rescue and ultimate preservation of the Lipizzans. The rescue of the horses was conducted under the orders of General George S. Patton and was carried out under the direct command of Colonel Charles H. Reed.
The story of the rescue operation is most dramatic. In early 1945, Vienna was under attack by Allied bombers. Colonel Alois Podhajsky, head of the famed Spanish Riding School in Vienna, feared the valuable Lipizzaner Stallions would be destroyed and arranged for the stallions to be transferred by train to St. Martin's in Upper Austria, 200 miles from Vienna. Fodder was scarce and starving refugees attempted to steal the horses for food.

Coincidentally, elements of the U.S. Third Army moved into St. Martin's at the time Podhajsky had quartered the horses there at the estate of a friend. An officer recognized Podhajsky and the stallions, and sent word to General Patton's headquarters. Patton and Podhajsky had been old friends; both competed together in equestrian events at the Olympic Games.

Podhajsky arranged to show the Lipizzans to Undersecretary of War Robert Patterson and General Patton the following day. Patterson and Patton were so impressed by the performance of these aristocratic white horses that the General, at the request of Podhajsky, promised to make the stallions wards of the U.S. Army until they could be safely returned to their home at the Spanish Riding School in Vienna.

While the stallions were sheltered at St. Martin's, the mares and foals had been separated from the stallions and were being held at the German Remount Depot in Hostau, Czechoslovakia. American forces became aware of their location through Colonel Reed.

On April 26, the 42nd Squadron captured a German general and his staff near Hostau. Reed and the General dined together and developed a friendship. The General showed Reed photographs of the Lipizzaner horses. When questioned further, the General confessed that the horses were being held at the German Remount Depot along with Allied prisoners of war who cared for the horses.

Later that day, Reed contacted Patton to ask permission to attack Hostau to liberate the prisoners and horses. Permission was granted. Later, an agreement was made with the Germans to allow American forces to go into Hostau and rescue the horses from the oncoming Russian troops. German officers, great admirers of the Lipizzans, willingly cooperated with the Americans fearing that approaching Russian troops would destroy the breed.

On April 28, members of Troops A, C and F of the 42nd Squadron attacked the German lines and accepted the surrender of the Germans at Hostau. The surrender, according to Reed, was "more a fiesta than a military operation, as the German troops drew up an honor guard and saluted the American troops as they came in.

The Americans found at Hostau a population of some 150 Lipizzans, including a few stallions, mares and their colts of two and three years of age. The first day was spent inspecting the horses. Two days later, German SS troops organized a counter attack on the 42nd Squadron as it moved eastward along the Czechoslovakian border. The Germans were driven off and a week later, the war had ended. Plans were then made for the disposition of the horses.

Colonel Podhajsky was flown in to inspect his horses. It was at this time that the Russian and Czech governments argued over possession of the horses. To prevent the horses from falling into their hands, the Lipizzans were quickly moved across the border to safety in Germany. Shortly thereafter, the Lipizzans were returned to the control of Colonel Podhajsky at Linz.

Lipizzaners Display Centuries of Breeding
Displaying the breed line
Displaying the breed line
Almost from the beginning of time, man has sought to turn whatever he has discovered, developed and perfected in the waging of warfare. Horses have been no exception. They had barely been domesticated and man had just learned to balance atop his back when he was forced to charge headlong into a massive army of weapon-swinging men. The horse, in its dedication to its rider, held steadfast when its instinct was to turn and run away.
Great warriors of the past had great steeds that became nearly as well known in history as the conquerors. Genghis Khan with his Mongolian stallion nearly conquered the ancient world. Bucephalus, the fiery horse of Alexander the Great, carried him from his native land with continuous victories to the border of India. Vizir, the fearless grey Arabian stallion, carried his rider, Napoleon Bonaparte, from Paris to Moscow and back.

During the Renaissance, a new breed of horse evolved. The Spanish Moors, mating together the finest bloodlines of the time, the Arabian, the Andalusian and the stalwart Vilanos, produced a horse that comprised the better traits of each of the other purebreds. This new strain was invincible in battle. They not only carried their riders fearlessly into battle, but because of their superb strength , coordination and their superior intelligence, they were taught defensive and offensive battle tactic of their own. With flaring nostrils and flashing eyes, they reared to their hind legs, pirouetting, sometimes literally hopping, their noble head and broad chest protecting their rider while he thrashed out with his sword. When foot soldiers advanced from behind, the stallion would leap into the air and kick out violently with his hind legs. He could balance in a haunching position, his own body shielding his rider and giving the warrior time to take careful aim with his weapon.

These were the greatest of all the noble steeds forced into the bloody battles of history. They were later to be brought to the territory of the Hapsburgs. A breeding farm was established in a little town near Trieste, called Lipizza. It was from this town that the horses begot the name Lipizzaner. The horses bred for war were soon to become a very real part of the social life of the Hapsburg Empire. In 1565, in Vienna, an exercise ground for the horses was created. It was called Rosstumblplatz and was in the garden of the Hofburg or Imperial Palace, where the famed Spanish Riding School stands today, between the Michaelerplatz and Josefplatz in the heart of Vienna.

In the present hall, which was completed in 1735 and is one of the world's masterpieces of baroque architecture, most of the globe's royalty have visited to watch this select breed of horse continue the true art form of dressage first set down by Xenophon in 400 B.C. The blood-chilling leaps into the air, the violent kicking out of the hind legs can still be seen, but now it is done as a display of rare ability seldom seen in any breed other than the Lipizzaner. The series of battle tactics is called "Airs Above the Ground". It is a highlight of the Lipizzan performance. Part of their storybook history was depicted in Walt Disney's movie, "Miracle of the White Stallions." In this film, General Pattonís Third Army during World War II told the story of the rescue of the horses.

Andalusian - The Pride of Spain
The Andalusian - Pride of Spain
The Andalusian
Pride of Spain
The cherished horse of Spain is one of the ancient breeds of the world. Its ancestry traces to the cave dwellers of the Moslithic Age, living about 8,000 years ago in the mountains of the Iberian Peninsula. Together with the Arabian and Barb strains, the Spanish horse is responsible for founding nearly all the other recognized breeds known today.
The Spanish, or Iberian horse was well known to the Romans as a superior war horse because of its strength and agility. The Romans used them under saddle and to pull their chariots. Julius Caesar wrote of the noble steeds of Hispania in Del Bello Gallico, and they are depicted in many reliefs and statuary of the period.

Hannibal relied on Spanish horses as well as elephants to take him across the Alps during his 218 BC invasion of Italy. History also notes that Richard the Lionhearted and many of his knights were mounted on Spanish horses when they rode to victory over the Saracens of Cypress. As further tribute to the noble breed, Sir Walter Scott put his great Ivanhoe aboard an Andalusian.

As a breed, the Andalusian dates back to the 8th century and the Moorish invasion of Spain. The Moors brought with them the fine Barb horses of their homeland. These they crossed with the native Iberian horses in an effort to produce a breed that combined the finest points of each equine type. The Moors were perhaps the most patient and critical horse breeders of their time.

After the Spanish reclaimed their lands, their efforts to develop an unexcelled warhorse were continued by the breeders of the Spanish province of Andalusia. The horse that they bred was very sturdy, with a long sloping shoulder, wide chest, deep heart and strong back. He also possessed extremely sturdy legs, round hindquarters and a well-crested neck with a natural arch. The horse was bred with inimitable Spanish flair. He carried himself with such style and presence that he was much sought after by kings and rulers all over the world.

Because of its strength and agility, this popular steed became the premiere war horse of Europe and was used in all of Spain's successful conquests. The Spanish horse practically carried Spain to greatness. As a result, the Spanish horse enjoyed the admiration of the world for thousands of years.

With the heavy use of Spanish blood, new breeds of horses were developed throughout Europe and older, more established breeds were improved. Eighty percent of all modem breeds trace part of their lineage back to the illustrious horse of Spain. Due to a heavy infusion of Spanish blood, the English Thoroughbred breed was already well established before the arrival of the celebrated Oriental stallions.

When Europe surged into the New World, the Spanish horse was integral to the explorer's efforts. As a result, it has been called the "great colonizer." As Spain's influence as a world power grew, it established stock farms in the Caribbean and supplied horses to all colonizing countries. In 1493, a law was passed that required every ship leaving Spain to carry at least 12 native horses. For hundreds of years, the Spanish horse was the equine representative in the Americas. All New World breeds carry its blood, owing at least part of what they are today to what the Andalusian was 500 years ago.

One example of the Spanish horse's influence is the American Quarter horse, whose development traces from the Colonial Short Horse-an animal of Spanish heritage-so named because it was unbeatable in short-distance races. The Short Horse was also crossed with a number of English Thoroughbreds when they were imported to what is now the United States. This mixing of blood produced most of the modem North American breeds, including the Quarter Horse, Morgan, American Saddlebred and the original American Thoroughbred.

Ironically, the very breeds that the Andalusian spawned were to be his near undoing. Size became the fad in Europe. The Neapolitan, the Norman and the English Thoroughbred grew in popularity and in numbers until finally, they surpassed the position of the Spanish horse. The Andalusian breed was all but extinct in all areas except Spain and Portugal, where it became known as the Lusitano.

Then tragically, the plague followed by famine, nearly pushed the breed into oblivion. Fortunately, the horses survived in a few mountainous areas of Spain, notably at the Carthusian Monastery. The animals of this herd are today known as the Carthusians, the finest of the Spanish horses. In order to conserve the rare horses for breeding, the government of Spain placed an embargo on their export. For more than 100 years, the Andalusian was virtually unseen by the rest of the world. Then in the 1960's the export ban was lifted.

Now the popularity of the Andalusian horse is once again on the rise. Horsemen are rediscovering the traits that made the Andalusian the most sought-after horse in the world; the strength, agility, beauty, pride and docility bred for centuries into the Spanish horse. The Spanish stallions are unique because they are fiery and tractable.

This seeming contradiction stems from the edict of King Ferdinand of Spain, who enforced the old law that gentlemen must ride only stallions. This severe edict must have resulted in a few Spanish grandees being dumped on their heads, until horsemen began to breed their steeds for good temperament, knowing that they would not only have to ride stallions, but they would also be selling saddle stallions for a living.

The temperament, agility and strength of the Andalusian are again being sought after for dressage purposes. Dressage and the Spanish horse were almost synonymous in the beginning. The Spanish horse was so strong and agile that he could be trained to do amazing things, and the techniques that are now recog-nized as modern dressage were actually methods used to train the superior war horses.

The Andalusian was so adept at this training that nearly all of the oldest and most famous riding schools started with Spanish horses. The best example of this is the Spanish Riding School in Austria, thus named for the Spanish horses that it used. The Lipizzan breed is an ancestor to the Andalusian, being almost totally of Spanish blood. As recently as 1968, a four-year-old stallion of the Carthusian line of the Andalusian was imported to rejuvenate the present line of Lipizzans in Austria.

Although less popular today among dressage horse breeders, the Spanish Andalusian is still a superior dressage mount. Occasionally overlooked by modem dressage riders, who consider him a "circus horse," the Andalusian significantly contributed to the Thoroughbred and most of the other popular European dressage breeds.

Nonetheless, the Andalusian is proving that he is not only suitable, but also perhaps the best choice for the dressage arena. The list of the breed's winnings and the spread of its fame is limited only by its rarity

The Andalusian is excelling in other areas as American horsemen discover his great level of versatility, As a Western-riding horse, his skills is surpassed only by his grandchild - the Quarter Horse. However, when it comes to agility and the ability to work cattle, there is none better than the Andalusian. After all, he has been through countless battles with wild and deadly Iberian bulls.

For well over 1,000 years, he has worked at close quarters with these bulls, both in and out of the bullfighting arena. With death only inches away, he has had to carry his rider dose enough to a maddened bull to place a rose between his horns and then whisk away before being gored. When not in the arena, he was the only horse quick enough to work the unpredictable and dangerous herds.

As a show and parade horse, the Andalusian's trademark movements, combined with his noble appearance with a long, lush mane and tail, make him a winner. His shiny gray or white coat glistens as he moves with all of the pride and style bequeathed to him by his ancestors who carried Caesars and kings in their day of triumph and splendor.

His strength and boldness make him a very good hunter and jumper. His agility and endurance make him ideal for trial riding cross-country Generally, the Andalusian is a horse for all seasons and for all sports, even though he is a relative newcomer to the United states. Not until 1965 were the first Andalusians registered in this country. Today, their numbers are only about 700, making them a as precious as gold to their owners.

Andalusian - From Head to Toe
COLOR: Andalusians are usually gray, ranging from steel gray to pure white. Bays are occasionally found. Blacks and chestnuts are extremely rare. Foals are born bay or black and turn gray at varying rates.
HEIGHT: The Andalusian usually stands between 15 and 16.2 hands at the withers. A hand is equal to four inches.
HEAD: The Andalusian's head is quite distinct. It is larger than that of the Arabian with a straight or slightly convex profile. It is not so large as to be out of proportion, nor small as to appear snippy. The forehead is very wide, with the eyes dark and kind. The ears are of proportionate length and well set. The nostrils are very large to allow tremendous air intake. The muzzle is large enough to accommodate the large air passages. The Andalusian's head is well represented in ancient European art.
NECK: The neck of the Andalusian is of proportional length and well tied in. It is heavier than that of the Arabian and the Thoroughbred and it is cleanly elegant. The throat latch is clean and not coarse. The crest is well-developed in stallions.
WITHERS: This is the highest part of the back of a horse between the shoulder blades. The Andalusian's withers are reasonablv prominent, not low or flat.
SHOULDERS: The Andalusianís shoulders are long and sloping with good muscles.
BACK: The Andalusianís back is strong and short, copupled and well connected at the loin.
CHEST: The Andalusianís chest is strong and broad with well-developed muscles.
LEGS: The Andalusianís legs are of proportionate length, clean cut and elegant, yet strong enough to support the robust body. They have straight, flat bones, large joints, short cannons, strong, well defined, sloping pasterns of good size and round, sturdy hooves. The legs of the Andalusian are usually sturdy, yet are not coarse.
QUARTERS: The Andalusianís qusrters are strong and lean with a rounded croup. The tail is set low.
MANE and TAIL: The Andalusianís mane and tail are both very long and thick.
Show Gallery - Show Highlights
Pre-show and Flag Display
Pre-show National Anthem Parading the Flag
Pas de Deux and Schools On The Ground
Pas de Deux Arabian Quarter Horse Schools On The Ground
Schools On The Ground Schools On The Ground Showing the bloodline brand 'L'
Airs Above The Ground
Airs Above The Ground Airs Above The Ground Airs Above The Ground
Airs Above The Ground Airs Above The Ground Airs Above The Ground
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions The Quadrille - A Ballet of White Stallions
For More Information
White Stallion Productions, Inc., Ovieda, Florida

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